Acupuncture and various other versions of acutherapy are among the oldest medical procedures in recorded history, while animal acupuncture is slightly less ancient. The original theories of traditional Chinese medicine formed the basis of acupuncture — needling certain spots on the body regulated the ow of “Chi” (energy), which owed through and nourished the tissues and organs. Today, we do not have a full understanding of the neurologic or biochemical basis of acupuncture, but that is changing as the results of studies are published on a regular basis. Horses and cattle have been treated with acupuncture in China and Korea since ancient times. Dogs, horses and cats receive acupuncture for many common ailments, and animal athletes are frequently treated for sports injuries. The application of acupuncture has expanded to zoo animals, small mammals, pet birds and raptors, and sea mammals.